Khitan: Bagi Laki-laki dan Perempuan


bismillah
Kemudian kami wahyukan kepadamu untuk mengikuti millah Ibrahim yang lurus(An-Nahl: 123).

Khitan menurut bahasa berasal dari akar kata arab khatana, yakhtanu, khatnan yang berarti “memotong”. Berdasarkan ilmu syar’i, pengertian khitan berbeda untuk laki-laki dan perempuan. Khitan bagi laki-laki adalah memotong kulit yang menutupi hasyafah (kepala kemaluan), sehingga menjadi terbuka. Sedangkan khitan bagi perempuan adalah membuang bagian dalam faraj yaitu kelentit atau gumpalan jaringan kecil yang terdapat pada ujung lubang vulva bagian atas kemaluan perempuan. Khitan bagi laki-laki dinamakan juga I’zar dan bagi perempuan disebut khafd. Namun keduanya lazim disebut khitan.

Hukum dasar khitan menurut beberapa mazhab berbeda-beda. Menurut beberapa fuqaha mengenai hukum dasar khitan adalah sebagai berikut:

Mazhab Syafi’i. Menurut mazhab Syafi’i, khitan bagi laki-laki dan perempuan hukumnya wajib. Hal ini didasarkan pada Al Qur’an, surah An Nahl : 123. Dalam ayat tersebut yang dimaksud dengan millah Nabi Ibrahim as, salah satunya adalah berkhitan.

Dan berdasarkan hadits Rasulullah saw yakni, dari Aisyah ra, bahwa Rasulullah bersabda,Potonglah rambut kufur darimu dan berkhitanlah(HR Muslim)

Mazhab Hambali. Menurut mazhab Hambali, khitan bagi laki-laki hukumnya wajib dan khitan memuliakan bagi perempuan. Hal ini sebagaimana hadits Rasulullah saw,

Khitan itu sunah buat laki-laki dan memuliakan buat wanita(Ahmad dan Baihaqi).

Mazhab Maliki dan Hanafi. Menurut kedua mazhab ini hukum khitan adalah sunnah muakkad bagi laki-laki dan perempuan, dalilnya: Dari Anas Ibn Malik R.a, bahwa Nabi Muhammad SAW memerintahkan kepada Ummu Athiyyah, tukang khitan perempuan di Madinah: “Sentuhlah sedikit saja dan jangan berlebihan, karena hal itu adalah bagian kenikmatan perempuan dan kecintaan suami.(HR Abu Dawud)

Adapun dalil-dalil yang dijadikan landasan para ulama yang mengatakan khitan hukumnya wajib antara lain:

1. Dari Abu Hurairah Rasulullah saw bersabda bahwa nabi Ibrahim melaksanakan khitan ketika berumur 80 tahun, beliau khitan dengan menggunakan kapak. (H.R. Bukhari). Nabi Ibrahim melaksanakannya ketika diperintahkan untuk khitan padahal beliau sudah berumur 80 tahun. Ini menunjukkan betapa kuatnya perintah khitan.

2. Kulit yang di depan alat kelamin terkena najis ketika kencing, kalau tidak dikhitan maka sama dengan orang yang menyentuh najis di badannya sehingga sholatnya tidak sah. Sholat adalah ibadah wajib, segala sesuatu yang menjadi prasyarat sholat hukumnya wajib.

3. Hadist riwayat Abu Dawud dan Ahmad, Rasulullah saw berkata kepada Kulaib: “Buanglah rambut kekafiran dan berkhitanlah”. Perintah Rasulullah saw menunjukkan kewajiban.

4. Diperbolehkan membuka aurat pada saat khitan, padahal membuka aurat sesuatu yang dilarang. Ini menujukkan bahwa khitab wajib, karena tidak diperbolehkan sesuatu yang dilarang kecuali untuk sesuatu yang sangat kuat hukumnya.

5. Memotong anggota tubuh yang tidak bisa tumbuh kembali dan disertai rasa sakit tidak mungkin kecuali karena perkara wajib, seperti hukum potong tangan bagi pencuri.

Khitan bagi Kaum Perempuan

Hukum khitan bagi perempuan telah menjadi perbincangan para ulama. Sebagian mengatakan itu sunnah dan sebagian mengatakan itu suatu keutamaan saja dan tidak ada yang mengatakan wajib.
Tidak ada hadist sahih yang menjelaskan hukum khitan perempuan. Ibnu Mundzir mengatakan bahwa tidak ada hadist yang bisa dijadikan rujukan dalam masalah khitan perempuan dan tidak ada sunnah yang bisa dijadikan landasan. Semua hadist yang meriwayatkan khitan perempuan mempunyai sanad dhaif atau lemah. Hadist paling populer tentang khitan perempuan adalah hadist Ummi ‘Atiyah r.a., Rasulllah bersabda kepadanya:”Wahai Umi Atiyah, berkhitanlah dan jangan berlebihan, sesungguhnya khitan lebih baik bagi perempuan dan lebih menyenangkan bagi suaminya“. (HR Baihaqi)

Imam Mawardi mengatakan bahwa khitan pada perempuan yang dipotong adalah kulit yang berada di atas vagina perempuan yang berbentuk mirip cengger ayam. Yang dianjurkan adalah memotong sebagian kulit tersebut bukan menghilangkannya secara keseluruhan. Imam Nawawi juga menjelaskan hal yang sama bahwa khitan pada perempuan adalah memotong bagian bawah kulit lebih yang ada di atas vagina perempuan.

Namun kaum perempuan menolak sunat perempuan karena mereka berpedoman kepada sunat perempuan yang dilakukan di Afrika yang biasanya memotong atau menggunting seluruh klitoris dan menjahit bibir besar, hanya menyisakan sedikit lubang untuk kencing saja. Proses sunat seperti ini akan menghilangkan rangsangan seksual pada perempuan atau bahkan perempuan tersebut tidak dapat menikmati kehidupan seksualnya. Menurut kaum feminis, ini melanggar hak reproduksi kaum perempuan.

Khitan model di atas di masyarakat Arab dikenal dengan sebutan “Khitan Fir’aun”. Beberapa kajian medis membuktikan bahwa khitan seperti ini bisa menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi perempuan baik secara kesehatan maupun psikologis, seperti menyebabkan perempuan tidak stabil dan mengurangi gairah seksualnya. Bahkan sebagian ahli medis menyatakan bahwa khitan model ini juga bisa menyebabkan berbagai pernyakit kelamin pada perempuan.

Walimah (perayaan) Khitan

Ibnu Hajar menukil pendapat Imam Nawawi dan Qadli Iyad bahwa walimah dalam tradisi Arab ada delapan jenis, yaitu :
1. Walimatul Urush untuk pernikahan;
2. Walimatul I’dzar untuk merayakan khitan;
3. Aqiqah untuk merayakan kelahiran anak;
4. Walimah Khurs untuk merayakan keselamatan perempuan dari talak, konon juga digunakan untuk sebutan makanan yang diberikan saat kelahiran bayi;
5. Walimah Naqi’ah untuk merayakan kadatangan seseorang dari bepergian jauh, tapi yang menyediakan orang yang bepergian. Kalau yang menyediakan orang yang di rumah disebut walimah tuhfah;
6. Walimah Wakiirah untuk merayakan rumah baru;
7. Walimah Wadlimah untuk merayakan keselamatan dari bencana; dan
8. Walimah Ma’dabah yaitu perayaan yang dilakukan tanpa sebab sekedar untuk menjamu sanak saudara dan handai taulan.

Penutup

Di antara hikmah khitan adalah selain untuk menjaga kebersihan, juga untuk tujuan kesehatan, karena dengan khitan kita telah membuang bagian tubuh yang menjadi tempat persembunyian kotoran, najis, dan bau yang tidak sedap. Oleh karenanya beberapa penelitian medis membuktikan bahwa penderita penyakit kelamin lebih banyak dari kalangan yang tidak dikhitan. Begitu juga penderita penyakit berbahaya aids, kanker alat kelamin dan bahkan kanker rahim juga lebih banyak diderita oleh pasangan yang tidak dikhitan.

Sebagai umat Islam yang mengutamakan kebersihan dan kesucian baik pada fisik, pakaian, maupun tempat tinggal, kita hendaknya mengamalkan khitan seperti yang dilakukan orang-orang sebelumnya termasuk Rasulullah saw. Dalam sebuah hadist, Rasulullah saw bersabda:”Kesucian (fitrah) itu ada lima: khitan, mencukur bulu kemaluan, mencabut bulu ketiak, memendekkan kumis dan memotong kuku(H.R. Bukhari Muslim).

Referensi:
1. http://www.pesantrenvirtual.com – Ajaran Khitan dalam Islam
2. Tausyiah275.blogsome.com – Tinjauan Sunat (Khitan) Perempuan Menurut Islam

22 responses to “Khitan: Bagi Laki-laki dan Perempuan

  1. Please find below an interesting article on Female Circumcision for your information:

    There exist many ahadith or sayings of the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) to show the important place, circumcision, whether of males or females, occupies in Islam. Among these traditions is the one where the Prophet is reported to have declared circumcision (khitan) to be sunnat for men and ennobling for women (Baihaqi). He is also known to have declared that the bath (following sexual intercourse without which no prayer is valid) becomes obligatory when both the circumcised parts meet (Tirmidhi). The fact that the Prophet defined sexual intercourse as the meeting of the male and female circumcised parts (khitanul khitan, or in some narrations khitanain ‘the two circumcised parts’) when stressing on the need for the obligatory post-coital bath could be taken as pre-supposing or indicative of the obligatory nature of circumcision in the case of both males and females.

    Stronger still is his statement classing circumcision (khitan) as one of the acts characteristic of the fitra or God-given nature (Or in other words, Divinely-inspired natural inclinations of humans) such as the shaving of pubic hair, removing the hair of the armpits and the paring of nails (Bukhari) which again shows its strongly emphasized if not obligatory character in the case of both males and females. Muslim scholars are of the view that acts constituting fitra which the Prophet expected Muslims to follow are to be included in the category of wajib or obligatory.

    That the early Muslims regarded female circumcision as obligatory even for those Muslims who embraced Islam later in life is suggested by a tradition occurring in the Adab al Mufrad of Bukhari where Umm Al Muhajir is reported to have said: “I was captured with some girls from Byzantium. (Caliph) Uthman offered us Islam, but only myself and one other girl accepted Islam. Uthman said: ‘Go and circumcise them and purify them.’” More recently, we had Sheikh Jadul Haqq, the distinguished head of Al Azhar declaring both male and female circumcision to be obligatory religious duties (Khitan Al Banat in Fatawa Al-Islamiyyah. 1983). The fatwa by his successor Tantawi who opposed the practice cannot be taken seriously as we all know that he has pronounced a number of unislamic fatwas such as declaring bank interest halal and questioning the obligation of women wearing Islamic headscarves.

    At the same time, however, what is required in Islam, is the removal of only the prepuce of the clitoris, and not the clitoris itself as is widely believed. The Prophet is reported to have told Umm Atiyyah, a lady who circumcised girls in Medina: “When you circumcise, cut plainly and do not cut severely, for it is beauty for the face and desirable for the husband” (idha khafadti fa ashimmi wa la tanhaki fa innahu ashraq li’l wajh wa ahza ind al zawj) (Abu Dawud, Al Awsat of Tabarani and Tarikh Baghdad of Al Baghdadi). This hadith clearly explains the procedure to be followed in the circumcision of girls. The words: “Cut plainly and do not cut severely” (ashimmi wa la tanhaki) is to be understood in the sense of removing the skin covering the clitoris, and not the clitoris. The expression “It is beauty (more properly brightness or radiance) for the face” (ashraq li’l wajh) is further proof of this as it simply means the joyous countenance of a woman, arising out of her being sexually satisfied by her husband. The idea here is that it is only with the removal of the clitoral prepuce that real sexual satisfaction could be realized. The procedure enhances sexual feeling in women during the sex act since a circumcised clitoris is much more likely to be stimulated as a result of direct oral, penile or tactile contact than the uncircumcised organ whose prepuce serves as an obstacle to direct stimulation.

    A number of religious works by the classical scholars such as Fath Al Bari by Ibn Hajar Asqalani and Sharhul Muhadhdhab of Imam Nawawi have stressed on the necessity of removing only the prepuce of the clitoris and not any part of the organ itself. It is recorded in the Majmu Al Fatawa that when Ibn Taymiyyah was asked whether the woman is circumcised, he replied: “Yes we circumcise. Her circumcision is to cut the uppermost skin (jilda) like the cock’s comb.” More recently Sheikh Jadul Haqq declared that the circumcision of females consists of the removal of the clitoral prepuce (Khitan Al Banat in Fatawa Al Islamiyya.
    1983).

    Besides being a religious duty, the procedure is believed to facilitate good hygiene since the removal of the prepuce of the clitoris serves to prevent the accumulation of smegma, a foul-smelling, germ-containing cheese- like substance that collects underneath the prepuces of uncircumcised women (See Al Hidaayah. August 1997). A recent study by Sitt Al Banat Khalid ‘Khitan Al-Banat Ru’ yah Sihhiyyah’ (2003) has shown that female circumcision, like male circumcision, offers considerable health benefits, such as prevention of urinary tract infections, cystitis and other diseases affecting the reproductive organs.

  2. Salam ‘Alaik my brother, Ahmed..
    I hope you are a muslim…

    Thanks for the information. It is so nice and important information.
    Circumcise for girls in Islam is to remove of only prepuce of the clitoris, not all of it.

    According to procedure of circumcise in Africa, some of girls refuse to have circumcise. It will be worried.
    We could see many hadith that show how the procedure is, and explain clearly to any girl who is hesitant to acts this obligatory constituting.

    Wallahu a’lam bish showab

  3. Thanks Br.Faisal

    In Islam what is required is the removal only of the prepuce of the clitoris and nothing else. In fact this procedure known as hoodectomy is fast catching on among western women who are having it performed for greater genital cleanliness and enhanced sex life. For more information please see http://www.hoodectomyinformation.com

  4. Here’s another finding on the benefits of Islamic female circumcision (hoodectomy) which I must share with you. In contrast to those who say that it affects women’s sexual feelings, there are many research studies proving that it actually improves the sex life of women. The latest is the recent study Orgasmic Dysfunction Among Women at a Primary Care Setting in Malaysia. Hatta Sidi, and Marhani Midin, and Sharifah Ezat Wan Puteh, and Norni Abdullah, (2008) Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 20 (4) accessible http://myais.fsktm.um.edu.my/4480/ which shows that being Non-Malay is a higher risk factor for Orgasmic Sexual Dysfunction in women, implying that Malay women experience less problems in achieving orgasm than non-Malay women. As you know almost all Malay women in Malaysia are circumcised (undergo hoodectomy) in contrast to non-Malay women who are not. This would suggest that hoodectomy does in fact contribute to an improved sex life in women rather than diminishing it as some argue

  5. Thanks Br. Ahmed. This is nice info…
    And may Allah give His hidayah for every one who read this…

    Circumcision has good affects in health, for man or woman.
    And it is good to control sexual feelings in woman, not to lost it, as many people has that wrong perception.

    Nice share.. Thanks a lot…
    May Allah bless u in ur life…

  6. An excellent work on hoodectomy (Islamic female circumcision) is available at http://www.umatia.org/2011/Safe%20Female%20circumcision.doc

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